1997, we became aware of a serious silting problem under the Ameristar
Casino's 630-ft. long, by 230-ft. wide, barge flotilla located on the
Missouri River at St. Charles, Missouri. Silt and large mounds of
driftwood had built up under the barges, and the flotilla were in danger
of setting on ground. This would have caused the casino to be closed.
Ameristar searched world wide for a dredging method that would remove
the silt and driftwood without having to move the barges. Two widely
acclaimed methods were tried. Both methods failed. One of the failed
methods was patented. The patented method caused one of the barges to
buckle, and replacement cost the Casino over $400,000.
Dredging Specialists was contacted and agreed to develop a dredging
system to solve these problems. Research and engineering lead to the
development of a drag scraper dredging system that would perform the
required dredging. The casino then commissioned us to build and operate
this system. To do the dredging work, a joint venture was formed with
Limited Leasing of Bridgeton, MO.
The Material: From the upriver end of the flotilla, there was soft
sticky mud that extended about 150-ft. downriver. If you tried to walk
on this mud, you would sink up to your knees. The material then changed
to layers of mud and sand. Further downriver, the material became hard
packed sand that you could drive a truck on. There were several spuds
and dolphins that held the flotilla in place. Around the spuds and
dolphins, there were huge piles of driftwood and root balls. Some of the
logs were up to 2-ft. in diameter. The driftwood was entangled like a
bird nest and buried in the mud. To provide sufficient water to keep the
flotilla floating during times of low water, required the removal of
material up to 22-ft. deep. It is necessary to dredge a depth of 12-ft.
to 18-ft of material each summer.
The Drag Scrapers: During the first year, we used Sauerman scrapers.
Because of the vastly different types of material and the driftwood, we
had many problems with these scrapers. We then designed and built our
own scrapers. We made model scrapers to 1/8-scale and used them to
conduct extensive tests in a test facility that we built.
revealed several keys to effective scraper design and operation. Our
scrapers will dig down and fill with material. When the scraper gets
full, it will stop digging down, will raise and drag the material. When
the scraper is out from under the flotilla, the scraper is stopped and
then pulled back. The material in the scraper is deposited when the
scraper is pulled back. Our scrapers will dig soft mud as well as hard
sand. Our scrapers have successfully removed the piles of entangled
We use a four cubic yard drag scraper with an open bottom and an open
top. This scraper is 4-ft. high. We also have a scraper that is 18-in.
high. The small scraper is used when the barges are on ground. With our
small scraper, we were able to dredge the barges off the ground.
The Winch Barge: This barge has a diesel
engine powered 19,000-lb. line pull, triple drum winch. The winch is used to inhaul and back-haul the scraper.
This barge has an
inhaul and back-haul mast, [Explained later], and the required sheaves.
This barge also has a service winch, large
operators cabin, tool and supply trailer, welders and other support equipment.
The Crane Barge: This barge is placed
beside and out-river from the winch barge. An
80-ton crawler crane is used to raise and lower the spuds on both the winch and crane
barges, to launch and recover the scraper, to handle supplies and for general service
work. By using the crane and winch barge
together, we are able to step the barges downriver on ropes and upriver with the service
The Back-Haul Barge: This barge provides
masts and the sheaves needed to pull the scraper back.
During dredging, it is rigidly rigged with cables to D rings that are welded
to the shore side of the flotilla. It has a
hydraulic system and cylinders to tension the cables.
service winch is used to reposition the barge along the side of the
The Masts: The winch cables cannot rub on the
bottom of the casino barges. Some of the
casino barges have a draft of 7-ft. This
required that we provide heavy structures that placed the sheaves and winch cables 8-ft.
under the water. We call these structures
mast piles. I will use the term mast.
The inhaul cable runs
from the winch to the inhaul mast upper sheave. It
then turns 90 degrees and goes straight down to the inhaul mast lower sheave, that is
8-ft. under water. The cable then turns 90
degrees and runs horizontally to a chain bridal at the front of the scraper.
The back-haul cable runs
from the rear of the scraper to an underwater sheave on the lower end of the #1 mast on
the back-haul barge. The cable then runs up
the mast, turns 90 degrees and runs to the top sheave on the #2 mast, that is located on
the other end of the backhaul barge. The
cable runs down the mast to an underwater sheave, where it turns 90 degrees and runs back
to the winch barge. At the winch barge, the
cable runs from an underwater sheave on the back-haul mast, up the mast to an upper
sheave, then to a two sheave Christmas tree, and then to the winch. The back-haul mast on the winch barge can be moved
to position # 2. This permits working from
upriver to downriver, regardless of which side of a river we are on.
For rigging and service
work, the masts on the winch barge are raised and lowered with the crane. The masts on the backhaul barge are raised and
lowered with hydraulic cylinders. The
bearings on the underwater sheaves are sealed with face type seals. All underwater sheaves will pivot.
The Winch Barge and the
Crane Barge are spudded about 100-ft. out-river from the flotilla. The inhaul and backhaul cables are rigged through
the proper sheaves and attached to the scraper. The
crane places the scraper in the water. The
winch pulls the scraper back and forth and the material is dumped out-river from the
flotilla. Dredging is started at the
out-river side of the flotilla and the scraper goes back 5-ft. farther, before being
pulled out on each successive pull.
The wheel of an encoder
runs on the flange of the inhaul top sheave. The
encoder is coupled to a programmable logic controller.
This tells the operator the location of the scraper. The depth of water and cut is determined by
soundings that are made on each side and between the barges of the flotilla. When a 6-ft. depth of material has been removed,
the barges are moved 10-ft. downriver and the process is repeated. When more than 6-ft. of material must be removed,
a second pass is made. Proper placement of
the inhaul cable on the anchor chain bridle, at the front of the scraper, causes the
scraper to remove material from the side of the cut, and this moves the scraper and the
cut downriver. It may be necessary to remove
the material that has been dumped out-river of the flotilla. This can be done by loading the material in barges
with a clam bucket, or it can be removed with a hydraulic dredge.
During the five years
that we have dredged under this casino, we have made over 25 improvements to the methods
and equipment. These improvements have
substantially decreased the casinos costs. This is part of our commitment to
Excellence with Knowledge, Experience
For five years, our Drag
Scraper Dredging System has kept this casino from closing and has saved 1,500 jobs. We do not know of any other dredging system that
could have done this.
Our Drag Scraper
Dredging System will successfully dredge under floating casinos, wharves, dry-docks, barge
flotillas, and large marine vessels and structures that cannot be moved.